Chandan Institute of Paediatrics & Neonatology
Dr. Narendra Rai
MD Paediatrics, -Fellowship (Paediatric Emergency), Academic College of Emergency Experts in India, - Fellowship (Indian Society of Paediatric Nephrology),
AIIMS, New Delhi, - Fellowship (International Paediatrics Nephrology Association), AIIMS, New Delhi
Paediatrics at Chandan Hospital is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. Chandan Hospital has a separate specialized, colourful and vibrant Outdoor Department for Paediatric patients. Which has two chambers for consultants, one chamber for breast feeding, play area for children and a large waiting lounge.
Chandan Hospital has a separate exclusive floor for Mother and Child Care. Which has Labour and Delivery rooms, I.V.F. Centre, two presidential suits, 8 Private Rooms and 8 two bedded Semi-private rooms, 4 bedded PICU and 10 bedded NICU.
The highest global standard care is given to newborn. Neonatal Intensive care unit has state of art equipment and trained staff to ensure utmost care to infant.
Computerized security System ensure that only authorized personnel with approved access codes can enter in the centre.
Subspecialties of pediatrics include:
- Adolescent medicine
- Child abuse pediatrics
- Clinical informatics
- Developmental-behavioral pediatrics
- Headache medicine
- Hospice & palliative care
- Pain medicine
- Pediatric allergy and immunology
- Pediatric cardiology
- Pediatric critical care
- Pediatric emergency medicine
- Pediatric endocrinology
- Pediatric gastroenterology
- Pediatric hematology
- Pediatric infectious disease
- Pediatric nephrology
- Pediatric oncology
- Pediatric neuro-oncology
- Pediatric pulmonology
- Pediatric rheumatology
- Sleep medicine
- Social pediatrics
Other specialties that care for children include:
- Child neurology, a specialty in its own right
- Neurocritical Care
- Pediatric neuro-oncology
- Child psychiatry, subspecialty of psychiatry
- Pediatric anesthesiology, subspecialty of anesthesiology
- Pediatric dermatology, subspecialty of dermatology
- Pediatric neurosurgery, subspecialty of neurosurgery
- Pediatric ophthalmology, subspecialty of ophthalmology
- Pediatric orthopedic surgery, subspecialty of orthopedic surgery
- Pediatric otolaryngology, subspecialty of otolaryngology
- Pediatric rehabilitation medicine, subspecialty of physical medicine and rehabilitation
- Pediatric surgery, subspecialty of general surgery
- Pediatric urology, subspecialty of urology
Neonatal Care Units (NICU)
A neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Chandan hospital is an intensive care unit specializing in the care of ill or premature newborn infants. Neonatal refers to the first 28 days of life.
NICUs now concentrate on treating very small, premature, or congenitally ill babies. Some of these babies are from higher-order multiple births, but most are still single babies born too early.
Besides prematurity and extreme low birth-weight, common diseases cared for in a NICU include perinatal asphyxia, major birth defects, sepsis,
neonatal jaundice, and infant respiratory distress syndrome due to immaturity of the lungs. In general, the leading cause of death in NICUs is necrotizing enterocolitis.
Complications of extreme prematurity may include intracranial hemorrhage, chronic bronchopulmonary dysplasia (see Infant respiratory distress syndrome),
or retinopathy of prematurity. An infant may spend a day of observation in a NICU or may spend many months there.
Neonatology and NICUs have greatly increased the survival of very low birth-weight and extremely premature infants. In the era before NICUs,
infants of birth weight less than 1400 grams (3 lb, usually about 30 weeks gestation) rarely survived.
Today, infants of 500 grams at 26 weeks have a fair chance of survival.
Incubator: An incubator is an apparatus used to maintain environmental conditions suitable for a neonate (newborn baby). It is used in preterm births or for some ill full-term babies.
There are additional equipment used to evaluate and treat sick neonates. These include:
Blood pressure monitor: The blood pressure monitor is a machine that's connected to a small cuff which wrapped around the arm or leg of the patient. This cuff automatically takes the blood pressure and displays the data for review by providers.
Oxygen hood: This is a clear box that fits over the baby's head and supplies oxygen. This is used for babies who can still breathe but need some respiratory support.
Ventilator: This is a breathing machine that delivers air to the lungs. Babies who are severely ill will receive this intervention. Typically, the ventilator takes the role of the lungs while treatment is administered to improve lung and circulatory function.
Functions of a neonatal incubator are:
- Oxygenation, through oxygen supplementation by head hood or nasal cannula, or even continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or mechanical ventilation. Infant respiratory distress syndrome is the leading cause of death in preterm infants and the main treatments are CPAP, in addition to administering pulmonary surfactant and stabilizing the blood sugar, blood salts, and blood pressure.
- Observation: Modern neonatal intensive care involves sophisticated measurement of temperature, respiration, cardiac function, oxygenation, and brain activity.
- Protection from cold temperature, infection, noise, drafts and excess handling Incubators may be described as bassinets enclosed in plastic, with climate control equipment designed to keep them warm and limit their exposure to germs.
- Provision of nutrition, through intravenous catheter or NG tube.
- Administration of medications.
- Maintaining fluid balance by providing fluid and keeping a high air humidity to prevent too great a loss from skin and respiratory evaporation.
A transport incubator is an incubator in a transportable form, and is used when a sick or premature baby is moved, e.g., from one hospital to another, as from a community hospital to a larger medical facility with a proper neonatal intensive-care unit. It usually has a miniature ventilator, cardio-respiratory monitor, IV pump, pulse oximeter, and oxygen supply built into its frame.
Common diagnoses and pathologies in the NICU include:
- Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)
- Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH)
- Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)
- Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)
- Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
- Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)
- Neonatal sepsis
- Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN)
Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU)
A pediatric intensive care unit at Chandan Hospital is an area within a hospital specializing in the care of critically ill infants, children, and teenagers.
Levels of care:
As medicine has matured over time, the development of the pediatrics intensive care unit has expanded to maintain a level one and a level two PICU. Among these two different levels, they are able to provide critical care and stabilization for each child before transferring to a different acuity.
In the level one PICU, health care team members must be capable of providing a wide variety of care that typically involves intensive, rapidly changing, and progressive approach. In the level two PICU, patients will present with less complex acuity and will be more stable.
Conditions Requiring the PICU:
Respiratory issues including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), asthma, apnea, sepsis,
trauma (may include abuse), congenital heart defects, mechanical ventilation, and complications of diabetes ketoacidosis.
Gastrointestinal conditions include gastrointestinal perforations, cancer/chemotherapy, organ transplants(kidney, heart), seizures, and poisoning.